Sperm donation is applied in IVF treatment, when the male partner is unable to produce viable sperm for treatment.
Sperm donation is where sperm from an anonymous donor or another person known to the couple is provided for use in IVF treatments to fertilise eggs. It is used for couples who are unable to conceive due to congenital or medical problems preventing the production of sperm. Sperm donation is also an option for couples where the male partner is Azoospermic (complete absence of sperm in semen) and cannot yield sperm from testicular biopsies and sperm donation is also an option for single women and lesbian couples
About Sperm Donation
- Males with undescended testes, whose sperm production is completely damaged due to not being operated on time;
- Sperm production is damaged due to chemotherapy or radiotherapy;
- Males, whose testicles have been damaged due to previous inflammatory disease – epidemic parotitis;
- Males, who do not have testicles due to trauma or other reasons; or patients, who cannot produce sperm due to genetic diseases,
- Couples, who have recurrent IVF failures and this condition is determined to be due to poor sperm quality;
- Couples, whose children are at risk to be born with a genetic disease due to consanguineous marriages;
- Single women or lesbian couples seeking IVF treatment.
There are two ways of preparation for couples undergoing Sperm donation, the first is preparation via IUI (Intra Uterine Insemination) and the second is IVF method.
IUI method is when the female has her ovaries checked and is closely monitored to check the growth of the follicle and when ovulation is optimal. The follicle is then controlled with medication to trigger ovulation and approximately 36 hours after this the sperm is injected via the uterus into the fallopian tubes so fertilisation can occur naturally.
IVF method is when the female partner is prepared for egg collection with a series of hormonal injections to stimulate the ovaries to produce more than one follicle which then can be collected around the 12th day of the menstrual cycle. Once the eggs are collected the donor sperm is injected (ICSI) into individual eggs. Once injection of sperm has been carried they then fertilise into embryos, the embryos are monitored for development which is then followed by embryo transfer either 3 or 5 days later.
Genetic diagnosis of embryos may be performed in order to eliminate egg related risks (such as Down syndrome, Turner’s syndrome) in the sperm donation process if the age of the mother candidate is advanced. In this sense, PGD (pre-implantation genetic diagnosis) or CGH method, which is also the first and only performed in our centre in Cyprus, can be preferred.