Being a parent is a dream and desire of many people. However, for some reason, this may not occur naturally. The problem can be with either the woman or the man. In this case, donation is one of the solutions. The donating of eggs from another woman is known as egg donation, and the donating of sperm from another man is known as sperm donation.
Before talking about sperm donation, it is useful to briefly look at the causes of male infertility.
Causes of Male Infertility:
• Sexual factors
• Urogenital infections
• Congenital anomalies
• Hormonal disorders
• Immunological factors
• Other diseases
• Sperm disorders of unknown cause
Anatomically male infertility can be grouped under three main headings:
1) Non-testicular Reasons: Chromosomal (Klinefelter syndrome, Kallman syndrome, Y microdeletion, cystic fibrosis, hormonal (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, hyperprolactinemia), coital (erectile dysfunction, endocrine, neural, ejaculatory insufficiency (psychosexual, drug, surgery) are among this group.
2) Testicular Reasons: Congenital (undescended testis, immotile cilia, absence of vas deferens), infection (orchitis), vascular (torsion, varicocele), antispermogenic drugs (chemotherapy, x-ray), immunological, tumor (germ cell tumors, testicular microlithiasis) are in this group.
3) Post – testicular Reasons: Obstructive (epididymal, vasal) and accessory gland infections are included in this group.
What is Sperm Donation (Sperm Implantation)?
Sperm donation is the fertilisation of an egg from a female in a laboratory environment when a male sperm is absent (azoospermia) for congenital or subsequent reasons.
Who can benefit from sperm donation?
Men whose testicles are damaged by chemotherapy and radiotherapy
Men with a history of fever or testicular damage due to mumps
Men with genetic disease
Men with infectious diseases such as HIV
Those who want to prevent the risks that may occur due to consanguineous marriage
Men with damaged testicles
Those who have failed repeated IVF trials due to poor sperm quality
The criteria for become a Sperm Donor
During the first interview, detailed information about the couple is obtained. All of their questions are answered and all medical, legal and psychosocial aspects of the treatment are discussed in detail.
Sperm transplantation depends on the approval of the health ministry of the relevant country. In accordance with the current legal legislation of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, sperm samples obtained from licensed sperm banks operating abroad are used for sperm donation in our hospital.
The donors are screened for infectious diseases that are likely to be passed on to the child through sperm and any genetic diseases that may cause serious health problems in the child.
The tests required from the sperm donor are;
• HIV1 and HIV 2
• Hepatitis B
• Hepatitis C
• Genetic analysis
• Cystic fibrosis
• Spinal muscular atrophy
• Familial Mediterranean Fever
• Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
• Sickle cell disease
• Metabolic disease screening
• ABO and Rh blood groups can be listed as tests required from donors.
In addition to the medical records of the donor their physical characteristics, ethnic and educational background are also taken into consideration. Providing there are no issues or concerns the donor can then be accepted into the program.
Upon acceptance sperm is obtained from the donor and frozen for 6 months. At the end of 6 months the sample is again tested for HIV. If the tests are negative sperm samples are then taken a total of 24 times once or twice a week, the samples are then frozen using Cryopreservation; this refers to the storage of cells and tissues by cooling down to temperatures below zero degrees to stop all biological activities and for the samples to be kept for future use. Before the donation takes place, the family can learn about the donor’s physical characteristics and educational status. Couples may choose donors based on certain physical characteristics and abilities. Patient confidentiality is essential throughout this process.
Sperm Donation process
As with all of our treatments our patient (s) will first have a consultation with one of our doctors, and will then be advised of our routine tests which include:
– Blood group
– APTT + PT (Activated Partial Thromboplastin
Time + Prothrombin Time)
– CBC (Complete Blood Count)
– Anti-HBC Igm
– Fasting blood glucose
Some of these tests will need to be performed on the first or second day of the menstrual cycle
The results of Anti-HCV, Anti-HBC Total, HIV and VDRL tests are very important as are the AFC and AMH. Your treatment protocol will commence on the second day of your menstrual cycle, once your body is totally prepared a trigger injection will be given and egg collection will occur 36 hours later. This treatment lasts 12 – 14 days on average. During this period, your doctor will ask for intermittent ultrasound and blood tests.
The eggs will then be inseminated with the sperm and monitored very closely by our embryology laboratory. This stage lasts about 5 days. The resulting embryos can then be transfered whenever the mother – to – be feels ready. On the 12th day post-transfer, the Beta HCG level is checked to understand whether pregnancy has occurred or not.
It is possible to conduct genetic testing of embryos formed by fertilization by sperm donation. If desired, the remaining embryos can be frozen for later use. These embryos can be used in case of failure in treatment or when a further child is desired. Embryo maintenance has a separate cost.
The written consent of both man and woman is obtained prior to sperm donation.
What Factors Affect Success in Sperm Donation?
Age of expectant mother
Egg reserve of expectant mother
Response to treatment